Attempts to revive the coin
By the end of 1917, the ruble compared to the 1914 devalued 10 times. Coins disappeared from circulation, replaced by the money brands are released in type of commemorative stamps to mark the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. Inflation continued to gain momentum, but in some areas, yet not subject to the Soviet government partially addressed the king's gold coins, silver and copper. In many localities issued their own currency, their own money was at some private institutions, cooperatives. To end monetary chaos in the mid-1920s, Nicholas 10 rubles was solid support of the population, they took absolutely everywhere. In some cities, there was an official exchange rate. In the Central regions at the end of 1922 10 gold rubles were given 12,500 rubles the Soviet notes of any issues.
Coinage at the time of faded, but in some cities there were metal bonds for the payment of salaries. Most famous: Armavir 1, 3 and 5 roubles double-headed eagle without crowns; the boom of cooperative organizations "Reason and conscience", which value is expressed in units (10 units = 1 pounds of grain); coins the signs of the Petrograd saddle bags, factory with picture of an elk. The only official release was the coins for the Khorezm Republic in Central Asia, where in 1921 Soviet power was established. The value is expressed in roubles in the Russian language, the rest of the coin was occupied by Arabic inscriptions. Since 1922, the country goes to the Soviet notes and the minting stopped.
Trying to stop the increasing inflation of paper money, which in 1921 was already in the millions, the government organized two denominations (at the end of 1921 and late 1922), but the fall of the Soviet ruble continued. Meanwhile, in 1921, was restored Petrograd mint, which for several years has stood. Here large quantities of new minted silver coins in denominations of 10, 15, 20, 50 kopeks and ruble, form and breakdown of the metal is not different from king's, but containing Soviet symbols. On the obverse was the coat of arms of the RSFSR and the motto "proletarians of all countries, unite!", on the reverse indicates the nominal value. These coins were to become the basis for establishing rigid paper ruble. Chasing continued in 1922-1923 with other dates, but the same design. To enter them was going as soon as the ruble gets stronger.
In November 1922, it was decided to create a parallel Soviet currency, backed by gold. This was revived by the State Bank, which produces banknotes – coins of the different denominations. The word "Ducat" was used to indicate high purchasing power. On the tickets, there was inscription on the exchange without restrictions at the rate of 1 Ducat = 7,74 g of pure gold. The reform minted 2 million coins by type 10 Nikolaev rubles with the same weight and a breakdown, but a completely different design: on the obverse the coat of arms of the RSFSR and the motto "proletarians of all countries, unite!", on the reverse the image of the sower in the field. The people the coin was nicknamed "the sower".
The coins do initially is exchanged for gold, giving as a new coin, and Nicholas. Paper Ducat was quoted on the stock exchanges of European countries and was considered a stable currency. All of this has reinforced confidence in the banking tickets, so in 1924 from minting gold ducats refused to conserve the stock of gold in the Treasury, which already has been reduced. There were attempts to establish the issue of copper coins, but the only known specimens. Collectors and famous gold Ducat 1925 with the emblem of the Soviet Union, are scheduled to enter together with a silver coin, the idea was later abandoned.
In the beginning of 1924 was the third and last denomination of the ruble. The appeal was received the tickets 1, 3 and 5 rubles, but the coins they are attached was not. For 10 years, the ruble has depreciated 50 billion times (gave sousaku 1921 for the ruble 1924). New money purchasing power became close to the pre-revolutionary. The exchange rate of the Ducat remained floating, and in 1925 he was tied to 10 roubles, this time completely stopped the exchange for gold. Undermining of confidence in paper gold coins already are not threatened, because it went successive government loans, allows you to get rid of the "extra" money at the population. Instead of buying coins now surplus rubles was received in the Treasury bonds, the exchange for gold to have no thought.
Silver ruble 1924
Nicholas 10 rubles remained in the informal circulation approximately to the early 30's. In 1975-1982 released novodel coins with the new dates, currently they are some of the investment coins of the Bank of Russia, are sold to the population and received at fixed prices. For the Olympics-80 part of the circulation (100 thousand) is made with proof quality. Tchervonets of 1923 are considered rare and are prized by collectors.
In 1924 finally came into circulation silver coins 1921-1923, and a new sample of 1924 with a different design and the emblem of the USSR. On the ruble in 1924, a worker and a farmer on the background of the factory, in the blacksmith fifty dollars. Nominal and indicated: "one fifty dollars". At the same time minted copper coins of 1, 2, 3 and 5 cents by the weight of the king's, but with the arms of RSFSR. In 1925, their production ceases, but there is ½ of a penny and produced until 1928.
For minting so many coins had additionally arrange the production at the factory "Krasnaya Zarya" in Petrograd, and also to send an order to London and Birmingham, where made a part of the circulation of the coins (London have the letters "TR" on the edge). Birmingham and "Red dawn" has released a copper coin.
In 1926 the cheaper aluminum bronze began to displace copper, and coins were much smaller. Their size was preserved until 1991. Rubles have already been not minted, and in 1927 stopped production of the coins. Roubles and half roubles will be reborn only in 1961, but in a cheap metal. Silver 10, 15 and 20 cents for the reinforcement of the value of the ruble was carried out until 1931, and yet they gave way to coins made of cheap alloys. Thus ended the era of "specie", it was replaced by coins the marks with the same symbolic support, like paper money.
Coinage from the 1930s to 1991
The diameter of the coins of all denominations remained constant for 60 years before the collapse of the Soviet Union. The differences consisted only in design, and slightly in the metal. In 1931, 10, 15, and 20 kopecks was the image working, with the abbreviation indicated value ("COP"), on the obverse the coat of arms of the Soviet Union and the motto "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" (same obverse 1926 was in small denominations). On small coins of the denomination specified completely ("cents"). In 1934 the motto disappears from the coins of white metal, and changing the reverse side (there is a shield with an indication of the denomination, e.g. "10 kop"). The alloy was more grey with a greenish tint. The following year, the slogan disappears from the coins of 1, 2, 3 and 5 cents, but the metal remains the same – aluminum bronze.
Further changes concern only the change in the number of ribbons on the coat of arms of the USSR, associated with the increase in the number of Union republics. In 1936 instead of 7 ribbons minted 11, and from 1948 – 16. Coins with 16 ribbons on the coat of arms 1947 very rare. In 1956 the Karelo-Finnish SSR is included in the RSFSR, so the coins 1957 already have 15 ribbons. Further, the issue was terminated in connection with the planned reform.
10 cents 1948
During the great Patriotic war coinage did not stop, but walked slowly. For example, 2 pennies, 1942, generally known only for directories, the real coin has not been seen. Another interesting fact is that the quality of the coins of this time is much lower. Even on well-preserved specimens can be cut and deformation of the pattern. This is due to the use of the same stamps much longer their life, the hasty preparation of coin clubs.
In 1931, on the Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard, the Soviet government created the trust "Arktikugol". For salary workers, available special payment bonds, and from 1946 began to mint coins in denominations of 10, 15, 20 and 50 cents. Even the later editions have a date "1946". Coins could be used for purchases on the archipelago. Upon arrival in the USSR, they were exchanged for Soviet money.
The reform of 1947 held with the denomination of cash circulation and partial confiscation of deposits, did not touch the coins at all. But the next reform was supposed to introduce new values and change the design of the existing coins. In 1956, produced as test specimens from 1 kopek to 5 roubles. And there was 2 options. In 1958, finally approved the new coins and has released a trial batch, but the reform was postponed. It is known that in 1958-1960 minted coins with the date "1957", so far they survived a lot. Probably minted and older stamps.
In 1961, all money exchanged at the rate of 1:10, in addition to coins in denominations of 1, 2 and 3 pennies (they were adopted before 1991). Entered into circulation coins with the date "1961" and the design approved in 1958. 2, 3 and 5 rubles refused, but returned in money supply 50 kopeks and ruble. The ruble and fifty kopecks were already smaller than their counterparts of 20 years, produced from the same white metal as 10, 15 and 20 cents. On the edge there was an inscription on the other coins the edge was ribbed. 1, 2, 3, and 5 kopeks of the sample of 1961 began the release of more dark bronze than before, and the weight is fully consistent with the denomination (1 penny or 1 gram).
5 cents 1962
In 1991, the coins began to put the letter of the mint, they otchekanili ("M" - Moscow, "L", Leningrad). Moscow court was established in the 1940s and has nothing to do with who worked in Moscow in the Imperial period. Leningrad was a direct descendant of the one that was founded by Peter I. the Letters on some instances, there are coins 1990, and some with the date "1991" is missing.
The last gasp of the Soviet monetary system of steel coins a completely new type with the words "State Bank of the USSR" and a picture of the Senate building, which was released in early 1991, the old is not canceled. It was 10 kopecks and 50 kopecks of steel with coating, as well as 1, 5 and 10 rubles. 10-penny coin was yellow and matched the coin of the old sample, 50 cents had the same diameter and coated with white. 1 and 5 rubles were manufactured from cupronickel, 10 rubles for the first time in history made from bimetal (white ring, yellow circle). Bimetallic 10 rubles you can meet and the date "1992" that it is much more prized by collectors. All these new coins among numismatists called "coins of the emergency Committee", though irrelevant to the State Committee of emergency situation that existed in August 1991.
Coinage from the 1930s to 1991
The revival of production of coins dedicated to important public events that occurred in 1965, when released the ruble in honor of the 20th anniversary of the Victory. He had the normal diameter of the ruble, but a completely different picture: the monument to soldier-liberator in Berlin, on the back of the emblem of the USSR and is divided into two parts by the inscription "SS SR", below face value year of issue. In 1967 was celebrated the 50th anniversary of the establishment of Soviet power, in honor of this event has released a series of coins from 10 cents to the ruble on revolutionary themes. They were also issued in their official sets.
In 1970 was the 100th anniversary of Vladimir Lenin marked the release of 100 million roubles in circulation with a portrait of the leader of the world proletariat (the people got the nickname "head"). 1975 commemorative coins are produced almost every year, still growing rapidly. From 1987 to add 3 and 5 rubles, which had a larger size.
From 1977 to 1980, released 6 Olympic rubles, actively collecting even those who were far from numismatic. These coins are known in the kits, which were manufactured superior quality brilliant uncirculated with mirror fields. There were other issues of improved quality, for example the ruble Lenin 1970 proof, is now one of the most valuable coins among the anniversary of the Soviet. Coins of proof quality (mirror field), BU (glossy relief) and UNC (improved check) into circulation was received and sold directly to collectors. They were usually in plastic zapico.
For collectors since 1965, also produced sets of coins of the regular coinage, they tried to do more efficiently, but the same stamps. Were annual sets 1957, and also sets each year from 1961 to 1991, some produced at two mints. In these sets were embedded token mint.
In 1977, on the eve of the Olympiad-80, began the minting of Olympic coins made of precious metals, which were intended for foreign guests. Silver with denominations of 5 and 10 rubles and was familiar to Soviet citizens, the box set was limited to purchase in specialized stores. Gold and platinum had large denominations: 100, 150 rubles. Since 1988, coins made of precious metals received a second birth, now they were devoted to different events (for example, the 1000th anniversary of the baptism of Rus) and sold freely. It was added palladium coins of 5, 10 and 25 rubles and gold 50 roubles. Some Soviet commemorative coins of precious metals are now among the investment banks and are accepted at a fixed price.
1. I. G. Spassky and V. L. Yanin. Soviet numismatics. Bibliography 1917-1958 gg. Numismatics and epigraphy, vol. II. M., 1960.
2. S. P. Fortinsky. Description of the Soviet coins in the period from 1921 to 1952, Numismatic collection, part I (Proceedings of GIM, vol. XXV). M., 1955.
3. Commemorative and jubilee coins of the Soviet Union. Directory. Ganichev S. I., Yurov, A.V., Mochalov I. A., Golyshev N. S., Kukushkina E. N. 1990. Publishing house "Finance and statistics".
4. Coins Of The Soviet Country. Jubilee and commemorative coins of non precious metals 1921-1991. Alexander Shirokov, Mikhail Zolotarev, Valery Sorokin. Moscow, 2008.
Photos provided by the users of the website: ALPI, Counselor, сергей1959
Other articles on the history of coins:
Monetary circulation of Ancient Russia
Coins of the Russian principalities
Coins of the Russian state XVI-XVII centuries.
Coins of the Russian Empire
Coins Bank Of Russia