Gold, silver and copper in the coin production
After the Northern war with Sweden in 1721, Peter I was proclaimed Emperor. By this time already formed stable currency, which existed until 1917. There were only minor changes to the images, lettering and weight of the coins.
Formed for many centuries the attitude of the population to silver, not weakened, therefore the copper coins had given a secondary importance, they were called "bargaining". Gold and silver were called "ringing", that is provided with precious metal. Copper coins were used for small purchases, they tried to keep their savings, not least because of the large weight (at different times of the ruble with such coins weighed from 340 g to 2 kg). But due to the limited supply of silver in the country, the copper sought to pay wages, bonuses, etc., although the major part of all government fees took silver. For example, the well-known case, perfectly demonstrating the problem: scientist M. V. Lomonosov was given the award in the amount of 2 thousand rubles copper coins, whose weight was almost 2 tons, had to hire cabs to deliver premium home. Maximum value of copper coins was 10 cents (with the exception of the rarest editions of XVIII century), but it happened only in some limited periods, most of the largest were 5, or even 2 pennies. And when Anna Ivanovna actually minted only free money and penny (1/2 and ¼ of a penny).
Silver was given the leading role in money circulation, based on ruble coin (the largest). Issued poltinas (half), polupoltinas (polupoltinnik, quarters), 20 cents (since Catherine II), fifteen kopecks (15 cents), hryvnia and dimes (10 cents), nickels (5 cents). Latest can mint in copper, and silver version. Under Peter I a short time produced Altyn (3 kopecks), and until 1718 penny-scales.
The Chervonets Of Peter I
(from the exposition of the Hermitage)
Gold played the role of a currency used for international payments, but it was also a means of accumulation and prestige. Gold coins of XVIII century is represented mainly by gold coins and double coins did not have nominal value. Limited produced gold 2 rubles, which served rather for the partial replacement of silver due to their scarcity. It so happened that in Russia there was almost no silver mines and in people's understanding of silver was equivalent to the word "money". When Elizabeth starts to mint a gold 5 and 10 rubles, as well as a special "Palace of the coin" with a denomination of 50 cents, the ruble and 2 rubles. These unusual coins were encouraged by prominent government officials and members of Palace coups. Under Paul I, the minting of gold coins was discontinued, and 5 and 10 rubles to the Revolution remained Central elements of the gold coinage.
Small coins of the XVIII century
The ratio between coins of different metals was not constant. More or less it remained only between gold and silver, the price of which was well known. The true cost of copper, few could determine, so the weight of copper coins was often neglected at the state level. Measure of weight was considered "coin stop" - the number of rubles that could be minted from a pound of metal (i.e., 16 kg). First increase the mint of the foot occurred in 1723, when they began to mint the first copper penny (crosses) with reduced 2 times the weight (40 rubles of pounds). A year later, a new penny weight but almost immediately the minting was stopped.
Kopeck Of Peter I
During the reign of Catherine I and Peter II were minted only coin-crosses the Petrovsky type. In 1730 ascended the throne Anna Ioannovna, daughter of Ivan V, brother of Peter. Immediately stop minting dimes, and in connection with the recent opening of mines in the Urals coin stop is reduced 4 times. Since that time many years was produced only of money penny double-headed eagle ornament. Remaining in circulation pennies were removed and minted in penny, and the penny until 1718 was altered in dengue. Open Ekaterinburg and St. Petersburg mints. Yekaterinburg is getting to the end of the XIX century the main producer of copper coins only in the second half of the nineteenth century their coinage moved to St. Petersburg yard.
Polushka 1734 (percikan of the Petrine kopecks)
In 1755, the weight of all domestically produced coins increased to 8 cents from pounds (i.e. 50 cents per kilogram of copper). The turnover returns penny, they peresekayutsya remaining reserves of dimes 1723 (weight matched). On both sides of the new cents was depicted sitting on a cloud eagle (then the picture for a bit is a silver coin). In 1757, began tinkering with old guns in a coin, opened a new mint in Sestroretsk. Stop raised to 16 rubles, the first time you enter the value 2 pennies (previously only existed in copies of the trial). Minted also Polushka, Denga, kopek new weight, and large 50-gram penny, now one of the most collectible coins. For 40 years, these coins have not changed, except for brief periods.
In 1762, after the death of Elizabeth the Emperor was the grandson of Peter I Peter III. In the history of numismatics his short-lived 186-day rule left a significant imprint. Peter III failed to bring to life the idea of 1760, to increase the denomination of the coin 2 times, it was to improve the difficult financial situation of the country, but in fact only reduced the credibility of the new Emperor. Time to recoin a small number of old coins Polushka, Denga, kopeck, 2 kopecks, 5 kopecks, respectively, in: Deng, penny, 2 penny, 4 cents and 10 cents. The design of the reverse side of the new coin was very different, was the image of military reinforcement.
A Palace coup, after which came to power wife of Peter III, Catherine II, made the point in all endeavors. Was made back pricecan in coins of the old design, but is the monogram of Elizabeth appeared the monogram of Catherine. The surviving coins with military fittings are now considered rarities. In addition to pricechange was used for mass production of copper coins in great quantities. It is believed that from the Catherine penny with the image of a monogram on the obverse and the eagle on the reverse had the game "betting": "heads" or "tails". Far from public Affairs, ordinary people did not understand the meaning of the monograms and called him a "sieve" or "tails".
One of the favorites of Catherine II, Platon Zubov organized monetary reform, which was implemented only in 1796. The aim again was to increase the nominal value of copper coins by overstriking, but the penny was minted separately. On the reverse of these coins was a large letter "E" (Ekaterina) on the front side indicated the denomination and date. Shortly after the death of the Empress ascended to the throne her son Paul, he immediately cancels the reform and coin peresekayutsya old, not even changing the monogram. This last pricecan from coin collectors were called "Pavlovsk". As the stamps were used not only last, but also significantly older, so peresechenii coins you can see the date of the beginning of Catherine's reign. 1797 coins appear a new type, but the same weight.
2 kopeks Paul I
Peraccini of the eighteenth century is an interesting numismatic section, is still not fully understood. They had a huge scale, so to perform the task, opened a temporary mints that existed (except capital cities) in Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Arkhangelsk Polotsk, the village of Porechye, Smolensk province, the village of Anna of the Perm province. Designation of temporary mints is not compromised, it is not always raised when pricechange large yards are usually just used old stamps. To distinguish pricecan possible by surviving parts of the old images. Some species exist only in the form paracetanol, therefore, determined by elements of the stamp.
On copper coins initially portrayed George, and when Anna Ivanovna appeared double-Headed eagle. In 1757, again, becomes important George, although 5 cents depict the eagle. On the obverse is minted Imperial monogram that previously existed only on the silver coins. Paul coins contain only the monogram and the denomination and strongly stand out among the rest. In the XIX century and until the end of Imperial rule the state coat of arms was minted already on all coins, not only copper (except 1839-1843). Since 1718, the date put the numbers to vaccinales Slavic letters.
The reform of E. F. Kankrin and "silver penny"
The first copper coins of Alexander I was with an eagle and was issued on the same foot. In 1810 due to the difficult financial situation of the Empire weight was reduced in half (to 24 rubles of pounds). Mass production of the fake banknotes to Napoleon in 1812 undermined the already shaky public confidence in paper money, which putting them in 1769 devalued 5 times. Despite the active actions of the government, the course assignation ruble was increased only slightly, and in 1839 began the preparation of the monetary reform under the leadership of E. F. Kankrin.
The first step was the establishment of the escrow Fund, taking the population of silver coins in exchange for Deposit tickets. To give the value of the tickets include face value in silver rubles. Depositors can at any time to exchange tickets again on the coin, but in this case part of the amount issued new copper coins. They were one and a half times larger than usual, and the value expressed in cents in silver. For example, it was stated "3 cent silver". Existed¼,½, 1, and 2 pennies, a Nickel was not minted. On the front side indicated the denomination, on the back was a monogram of Nicholas I. Among the population certainly are a penny valued higher, which increased the credibility of the Deposit tickets. The bad harvests of 1841 led to the release of loan tickets instead of savings, they were backed by coins only half. The ratio was declared to depositors.
5 cents 1912
In 1843, instead of the Deposit and borrowing tickets issued credit, which had the same function. This was the completion of the reform, appeared in circulation sustainable paper rouble silver equivalent. In fact it was the same notes, only the exchange has already carried out exclusively on the silver and more limited than before. Stop copper coins increased to 48 rubles of pounds and stored in this form until 1917. In 1867, is the last design change of the coins.
Of the coin-Board and the Sestroretsk ruble
Under Peter I in the Urals, were found large deposits of copper, but due to the inaccessibility of the region, their development had to be postponed. In 1723, is based in Yekaterinburg (named after Catherine I, wife of Peter), where the construction of large metallurgical plants, including the "paid court" - the enterprise for manufacture coin boards of the Swedish type. In Sweden in the mid-seventeenth century produced multikilogram copper rectangular Board with marks at the corners, they had a face value in Dalilah was replaced by silver in financial calculations, like intends to introduce in Russia.
Coin card square shape was produced in 1725-1726 years on the foot 10 rubles of pounds, had the following denominations: 1, 5 kopecks, the grivna (10 kopecks), polupoltina (25 cents), poltina (50 kopecks) and the ruble. At large (from UAH) were 5 round stamps: four eagles at the corners and the denomination in the center. On the penny and 5 cents was only one brand with an eagle, and on each side is designated the nominal value. On the reverse side of all cards of the image and the inscription was missing, but known rate of letters – the initials of mintmaster.
It soon became clear that the heavy coins-boards are inconvenient to use, the population took them reluctantly. Therefore, in 1727, the yard is renamed the coinage begins to produce the first workpiece, and then the coins, becoming the largest enterprise for production of copper coins.
After entering the paper money there is a need to ensure their coin. The coinage of dimes was a difficult task that demanded more resources. So I decided to return to the idea of release of copper rubles, fortunately the ruble by the time "relieved" from 1.6 to 1 kg. Production was planned to develop at the Sestroretsk factory of the former gun barrels. The stamps for coinage were the diameter of a silver ruble, and the ruble copper were much larger – about 7 cm and a thickness of 2.5 cm Circles produced by cutting a copper cylindrical billet, attempts were also made to do their casting.
The complexity of the production Sestroretsky rubles has not justified itself and all initiatives were shelved. Survived a few test copies, one of which has a diameter of 101 mm and a thickness of 15 mm. also Known numerous counterfeit and imitation a later time, wherein the quality of workpieces and drawing. Many of them still put the collectors to a standstill. To strange followers Sestroretsk ruble is the so-called "Pugachev ruble" minted by the usual silver, but stamps Sestroretsk. Its purpose is still not solved, and the name "Pugachev" received on standing on it the date "1771" - the year of the Pugachev rebellion.
In 1757, in the vicinity of the Altai in the village of Kolyvan (now Nizhniy Suzun) was laid down copper mines. Their feature was that the ore contained a small admixture of gold and silver, which highlight the technology of the time was extremely difficult. The ratio of the metals was as follows: of 99.18% copper, 0.79 percent silver and 0.03% of gold. However, to coin of metal a coin did not, and used it to issue special coins for the needs of Siberia.
5 "Siberian" cents
Siberian coin had a lower weight (25 rubles from pounds instead of 16), simplified monogram of Catherine II (as on the coins of 1796) and the coat of arms of Siberia on the reverse side. Depicted on the coat of arms of the two holding sable oval indicating the denomination of the coin in words. The coins were minted specially created Kolyvan mint from 1763 to 1781. There was the following denominations: Polushka, Denga, kopeck, 2 kopecks, 5 kopecks, 10 kopecks. Last weighed 65 grams.
Siberian coins could be accepted in other regions of the country at face value. Externally silver-Golden copper did not differ from the usual metal coins, so the counterfeiters could melt down the national coin and manufacturing follow Siberian, which was much easier. From 16 rubles normal was 25 Siberian, justifying all costs to be melted and minted. Therefore, in 1781, the Kolyvan mint switched to mint state, indicating the letters "KM" - "Kolyvan coin".
Silver in the Russian Empire
Silver ruble for 200 years remained the "face" of monetary circulation, so the coin was placed in the main face of the country – the portrait of the Emperor. Tradition broke Paul I, bad refers to their appearance (the portrait was only on test instances). The following rulers did not place their portraits, and returned to the idea only Alexander III, when it was necessary to strengthen the Imperial power to fight the rebellion. The portrait of the monarch was busy with the memory of the Soviet people.
In the history of Russian numismatics is one ruble, which strongly stands out among the rest even the eyes of a newcomer, just beginning to learn coins. This so-called Konstantinovsky ruble coin with a portrait of never ruling Emperor. In 1725, suddenly dies from illness Alexander I. to the Throne was to take the elder brother Constantine, who commanded the Polish army. Constantine abdicated in favor of his younger brother Nicholas, but the news of this went to the capital for a few days. During this time the Decembrists had to use the interregnum and organized a revolt, and the mint in St. Petersburg produced the stamps and a few sample copies of the new ruble with a portrait of Constantine. These rare specimens are stored in the leading Russian museums and in several private collections abroad.
Weight roubles ranged from 20-28 grams. Poltinas and polupoltinas (25 cents) and the smaller denominations in proportion corresponded to the ruble. At first, the weight of the ruble in line with European Thaler (28,5 g), under Anna Ioannovna it decreases to 25.5, under Catherine II to 24 grams. In the beginning of his reign Paul I returns the initial weight and even makes it a little big – 29 grams, but not for long, and after a year minted rubles total weight of 20.7 grams. This new weight was maintained for almost 100 years, and when Alexander III was established exactly 20 grams, and then no longer changed. The sample of coins of large denomination were changed many times from 848 to 900. On the edge (edge) usually had an inscription showing the weight of the spool and shares.
20 kopeks of Catherine II
First coins of 15 and 20 cents appeared during the reign of Catherine II, they were a portrait of the Empress. In the XIX - early XX centuries these denominations were also minted, but without the portraits. As for the silver dime, they began to produce under Peter I and intermittently produced until 1916. Only under Catherine II on the dime was a portrait. During the reign of Paul the word "dime" gave the direct orders of the denomination "10 cents". The silver pennies after the Petrine era appeared only in the years 1755-1757, they are two sides depicted an eagle among the clouds. Later, they repeated the design of the dime. Silver coin of small value (5-20 cents) made of silver low samples, often belonoha silver (500 test) or even below.
The ruble 1898
The last ruble issued in 1915 and are considered rare. At this time, silver began to gradually settle in the hands of the people, or went abroad on account of procurement of weapons. The minting of silver coins of small denomination discontinued in 1916, replaced them prepared for the 300th anniversary of the Romanov stamps, called the money-stamps. In 1917, the same fate befell a copper coin.
The gold coinage and the reform of S. Yu. Witte
In the XVIII century, the basic gold coin was the Ducat, which had no value and by weight (3.4 grams) corresponding to the European Ducat. They were mainly used for foreign purchases and international payments, however, could appear in free circulation at the fixed rate. Sometimes double minted pennies. After Paul I coin denominated coins are no longer produced.
In 1718-1728 years produced a coin of 2 rubles weight of 4.1 g. In the reign of Elizabeth they were replaced by new values of 5 and 10 rubles underweight (for 8.2 and 16.4 g, respectively). That is a gold ruble weighed 1.6 g and not 2 g as before. These coins of big denomination unofficially called the Imperials and proimperial. Limited under Elizabeth and Catherine II issued a "Palace" 2 ruble ruble and 50 kopecks of gold, which served mainly for rewarding distinguished citizens.
To take Russian money abroad is not really wanted, even if they were gold. A lot more a long time was aiming for the Dutch ducats, when calculating which didn't even have to pay a crap – markup percentage. Therefore, 1768 on the highest indication secretly begin to mint in Russia, the ducats of Holland, has not changed until the mid-nineteenth century. The weight and fineness of metal was identical to the original, so it was more of a role model than a fake at the state level. When the issue of ducats in Utrecht in 1849, were discontinued, Russia produced another 19 years until it was exposed in fraud. For international payments began to be minted trichromacy similar weight, but not for long, since 1885 made only gold 5 and 10 rubles.
During the reign of Catherine II the weight of gold coins reduced, and the ruble contains only 1.3 grams of the sample at 968. In 1798, the weight is again lowered to 1.2 grams per ruble, but in 1817 increases a little by reducing the sample to 917. At the same time on the coins appears the Masonic eagle with widely stretched wings (he also minted on the coins of other metals). In the reign of Alexander III gold coins returned the portrait of the Emperor, and the sample is reduced to 900. The weight 10 roubles is set equal to 12.9 grams.
The Crimean war, followed by another Russo-Turkish required large expenditures, the reserves of silver coins was depleted, for the exchange of the credit cards was missing and copper. This caused a gradual decline in the credibility of the paper ruble, its exchange rate began to fall, and by the end of the nineteenth century gave him only 66 cents silver. The situation had to be addressed by the Minister of Finance Witte, who proposed to introduce the gold standard, the basis of the circulation of money was gold coin and not a silver ruble.
The first thing that had to be done to prepare gold coins to the introduction of new credit cards. The solution was extremely simple and ingenious: available denominations of 5 and 10 roubles equated to 7.5 and 15 rubles, and new ones were minted with a reduced half weight. To prepare the population, is expected to create coins with new names. Considered a different version, but the mint went "blonde" and "the Imperials", although more samples is not reached. "Imperials" and "proimperialist" limited edition was produced for the awards and to collections of treatment they received. In 1897 a large circulation minted by the values of 7.5 and 15 rubles with a portrait of Nicholas II, but produced only 5 and 10 rubles. 15 roubles began to be called "Imperial" and 10 rubles were given the name "Ducat", clicked and then in the Soviet lexicon. However the weight of pure gold that new gold piece corresponded to two ducats of the eighteenth century.
5 rubles 1898
In 1898, introducing new credit cards, which clearly state the amount of gold that you can exchange the ruble without limitation of amount. The reform has not touched silver coins because to them in exchange for the tickets was already impossible. Hardness of credit cards that reached its peak in design, remained unshaken until the beginning of the First World war. Since 1914, first disappears from circulation the gold, followed by silver, and by 1917, even copper. The epoch of unsecured paper money and hyperinflation.
A huge number of gold coins were hoarded in the form of hoards and caches, which are to this day. A lot has gone abroad. According to unofficial information, the Soviet government in the early 20-ies resorted to chasing Nicholas 10 rubles for foreign purchases. Many collectors now are scratching their heads over what exactly is in their collection.
Gold was not the only metal in the production of coins high esteem. In the late 1820s an attempt was made to start production of platinum coins from the rich deposits of the Urals. Produced 3, 6 and 12 rubles at the rate of 25, 50 kopeks and ruble, respectively, and weight was twice due to the high density of the metal. That is, platinum was estimated to be just 6 times more than silver (now almost 60 times). Coins reluctantly accepted by the population, since many did not believe in the stability of the prices of this metal. In addition, the production was very expensive, so the issue was abandoned. The latest date from 1845. Almost all copies were confiscated and exchanged for gold and silver, and platinum sold to an English firm. More info about platinum coins can be found here
Coins regional issues
Part of the Russian Empire's new territory for a long time used their coin system. In Finland, the national money has never been introduced. Coins were minted in the local cities in the mints controlled by the Russian government. Own money has long been in Georgia, Finland, Poland, briefly addressed in the Crimea, Moldova, the Baltic States.
In addition, coins were produced in the Russian courts for the army, temporarily located in the foreign territory. During the Northern war, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (United Poland and Lithuania) signed a Treaty with Russia against Sweden. Sent troops there were issued silver coins tip, poluting and Sestak with a portrait of Peter I and Russian inscriptions. During the Seven years ' war in 1758-1762 years in Prussia, which became for a time part of Russia, minted coins in the local language, denominated in Thaler and pennies.
In 1756-1757 years cash handling the Baltic States were part of Russia for 35 years, added coins usual for these places size and weight, but indicating the denomination in cents (2, 4, 24, 48, 96 cents) and livanto (1/48, 1/24, ¼, ½ and 1 limones respectively). After the Seven years war, the coinage was stopped.
The German Principality of Holstein-Gottorpsky and Jever at one time belonged to the heirs of the Russian throne, therefore, partly on the land were spread the Imperial power. The coinage of these principalities was symbolic, almost not affect the circulation of money. And finally, it is worth mentioning the payment tokens 1916 to 45-thousand Russian army in Paris.
Much more importance was coinage for Finland, which began in 1864 and ended only in 1917. Finland was ceded to Russia in 1809, but for a long time there asked Swedish coins. Finnish coins, minted in Helsingfors (Helsinki) had a special weight, the inscriptions are in Finnish, and in different periods have different rate against the ruble. Produced gold 10 and 20 marks, silver 25, 50 pennies and 1 and 2 marks, copper 1, 5, 10 penny. Copper differed monograms of Russian emperors, and the rest had almost no differences at all over the issue. In 1917, minted coins with the eagle without a crown. For the first 4 stamps gave 1 ruble, but due to changes in the sample and the weight of rubles the ratio changed and remained the same only in gold, but by the end of the century, for 10 rubles have already given a total of 30 gold marks.
In Poland the mint of Warsaw in the early nineteenth century minted gold, silver and copper coins, pennies and expressed in zlotys in the Polish language. But with the 1830s, after the Polish uprising the independence of the monetary system was abolished and gradually began to introduce Russian money. To accustom the population to rubles and kopecks the value initially indicated double (in two languages). Later Warsaw issued copper Russian coins with the designation "WM". The organizers of the Polish uprising of 1830-1831 was also minted their own coins, absolutely other denominations in ducats, PLN and pennies.
In Georgia, Russian coinage began before the accession of this territory to Russia. 1781 copper coin Bisti and provisti, then the bullet – coins of small denomination. Since 1804 the appearance of the coins changed, they added silver prabasi, and double Abaza Abaza. The latest date from 1833, after which Georgia moved to the Russian money.
In Crimea immediately after joining the Peninsula to the Russian Empire continued to apply the money of the last Khan şahin Giray, then founded a new mint in Feodosia, producing silver 2, 5, 10 and 20 cents special type with the monogram of Catherine II. Almost immediately he transferred to the production of a copper penny with the letters "TM" (Taurida coin).
In 1771 parts of modern Moldova and Transnistria was annexed by Russia. In the same year the estate was founded Sadagura mint, where to 1774 were issued copper coins denominated in pairs.
Commemorative coins of the Empire
The tradition of celebrating important events with the release of the coins originated with the coming to power of Catherine II, when released a large gold ruble, the size of which was equal to the silver ruble, and the weight of even exceeded it. Such coins giants were awarded the participants of the Palace revolution of 1762. Drawings and inscriptions fully meet the silver ruble minted later.
The next coin was a Nickel 1763 in honor of the beginning of the redistribution of the guns in the coin at the Sestroretsk factory in 1757. On the front side of the penny was double-headed eagle, value and date "1757", on the reverse the monogram of Catherine II (the normal coin this year, the monogram of Elizabeth). Currently there is only one instance of such coins stored in the collection of the State historical Museum (GIM).
These commemorative coins with his own picture appear in the 1830s, and minted until the early twentieth century. It was mostly silver rubles, repeating the weight and shape regular. They have a complicated artistic design. For a "wedding" rouble 1841, issued in honor of the marriage of the heir to the throne, there is no nominal value, and the figures even have deep relief, generally is not peculiar to the coins. In 1836 and 1839 released two commemorative coins with denomination half ruble, which corresponded to 10 Polish zlotys.
Mint gold commemorative coins had been developed much weaker. In 1832, released 5 gold rubles with the words "iz Ross. koliv." (from the Kolyvan mines) on the development of gold mining in the vicinity of Kolyvan. The rest of the coin repeats the usual 5 rubles. In 1876, released 25 rubles (unprecedented nominal) in honor of the 30th anniversary of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich.
In 1895-1896 he developed the design of the new coins for the forthcoming currency reform, they were going to call the Imperials. In 1896, on the occasion of the coronation of Nicholas II produced a 301 coin in denomination of 25 rubles, or 2.5 Imperial (Imperial wanted to call 10 rubles, but later the name stuck for 15 rubles). According to legend, in 1908, Nicholas II personally found a gold nugget weighing 5 lbs. From him on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Emperor made another batch of 25 rubles, but the improved coinage.
The largest denomination coin of the Empire was produced in 1902-1904 for inter-state transactions of Russia and France, but on trial of issues is not reached. Their weight was equal to 32 grams and the face value was 100 francs or 37.5 rubles. Just released 236 coins, which sold among members of the Imperial family.
Rouble "300 years of the Romanov house"
The last anniversary of the Royal coins were the ruble in honor of the 200th anniversary of the battle of Gangut and the ruble 1913 in honor of 300 anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. Further, the state was no longer able to scale to mark important events, and to the minting of commemorative coins was only back in 1965.
For numismatic collections and private collections of coins made of conventional design, repeating the regular coinage, but the improved quality proof. These can now be seen in the Hermitage collection. These editions differ in the smooth mirror box and eye-catching on the surface of a matte image. For collectors was and releases ordinary coins improved coinage, not coming into circulation.
Almost all commemorative gold coins, as well as 1.5-ruble silver and copper coin 1757 with the monogram of Catherine II was donative, that is premium. Produced for the delivery of the dignitaries and the free float was not involved.
Photos provided by the users of the website: Andreyp, CAST, Estel, mr.sas1963, Монета100, Admin, 3715
Other articles on the history of coins:
Monetary circulation of Ancient Russia
Coins of the Russian principalities
Coins of the Russian state XVI-XVII centuries.
Coins of the USSR
Coins Bank Of Russia