The Reform Elena Glinsky
In 1533, ascended to the throne an infant son of Vasily III – Ivan, later surnamed the Terrible. The Prince Regent was his mother Elena Glinskaya who became famous for several important reforms, including cash. All the Russian principalities by the time again became a unified state, but was ruled still great princes, the Central ruler was considered "Grand Prince of All Rus'", whose throne was in Moscow. They were supposed to be three-year-old Ivan.
The money supply in the state was very diverse. Old coins not withdrawn from circulation, so even one of the Novgorod money, there were dozens of types. The weight of coins minted in different regions, very different. Moscow Denga was about 0.37 g and the Novgorod and Pskov of 0.75. There was also a mite, severety and copper pools. Feudal princes have been forbidden to coin money, but still can be found Mozhaisk, Galich, vanaskie, Kashinsky, Rostov, etc. coins. In 1534 the order of Yelena Glinskaya began cash refoma, whose aim was the normalization of monetary circulation with the unification of all monetary systems into one nationwide.
Kopek Ivan The Terrible
Given the prevalence of two types of coin – Novgorod severe dengue and Moscow vicinity, it was decided to continue with their chasing, but changing the value of Novgorod. Moscow Denga ("tit") has not changed its view on the new still depicted a horseman with a sword. The Novgorod dengue ("Novgorodka") began to portray of a horseman with a spear (St. George), gradually these coins received a new name "penny", which stuck to our time. Moscow mite (1/2 the money) with the image of birds also were saved (in Novgorod they were called cataractae). Copper pools are no longer minted. On the reverse of coins was placed the inscription with the title of Prince (on the mite – "GDR"). The weight of the coins is slightly lowered and brought to a single standard: the penny – 0.68 g, Deng – 0,34 g, mite and 0.17 g.
The production technology has not changed: a bar of silver weighing 200 g were chosen for the wire, which is roughly divided into 300 pieces, each flattened and minted penny. For money has made 600 pieces for the cushions, 1200. Of course in this production the weight of some coins fluctuated considerably (approximately 20% in each direction). Control weighing was performed only lots of coins. Form of coins, too, was different: there were long and round and diamond-shaped. The same is almost impossible to meet. Coins were minted not separate denezhnymi and cash courtyards, which silver was supplied from the state Treasury.
At first (until 1538) produced not only new, but also coins of the old type at a higher coin stop old stamps. Production was concentrated in Moscow, Novgorod, Tver and Pskov. And in Moscow was only coined money with the image of a horseman with a sword, and before 1547, the same stamp I gave a penny. Collectors are a penny called "mechenye". Novgorod and Pskov produced penny and penny, and Tver – free money and penny. Chasing money in Tver was soon discontinued.
In 1547 Ivan the terrible was crowned and became the first Russian ruler, received the title of "king." In connection with this event on the coins the inscription "Grand Prince" added "TSR" (the king). That is, all coins with this inscription are dated no earlier than 1547.
Coins of the time of Troubles
Ivan the terrible's son, Fyodor Ivanovich is remembered by historians for some outstanding merit, but the end of his reign the coins of the Novgorod coinage for the first time in the history of Russia date appears, denoted by the letters of the Slavonic alphabet. The count was conducted from the introduction of the Byzantine calendar in 1492, coin 1597 has a date of "105", marked with the letters "RE". In addition, in addition to the premium gold Ugric began to mint gold penny, also used for rewards for various achievements. Chasing produced the usual stamps and form cents matched silver. They can participate in the circulation approximately at the rate of 1:10.
Chasing the cushions for a long time stopped when Ivan the terrible, Boris Godunov, already made only pennies. The stamps could be used in different yards, so you can often see one side with the inherent Novgorod Dating, and the other had distinctive Moscow pattern.
In 1605 ascended to the throne false Dmitry I, posing as the son of Grozny. His coronation and the wedding was very magnificent, was shown the return of the Imperial dynasty, dangling after the death of Fedor Ivanovich. Was released on this occasion a silver medal, continued to mint gold and silver cents. To gain the confidence, the false Dmitry I produced a large number of coins and pay with the old national debt. However, this did not help him stay long on the throne, but to numismatists, he left a great legacy.
Who came to power after the coup boyar shuiski, resumed the minting of money in Moscow. In addition, they began to coin Golden money with the Golden penny went to pay with the invaders. In parallel, in 1606, was on the throne, false Dmitry II, also produces his coin, but his reign lasted only a few months. The normative weight of the penny is reduced to 0.64 g.
In 1610 the government as a result of a new revolution came 14-year-old Vladislav Shimonovich the son of the Polish king. Under him the country was directed by the military command. Minted only a penny with the name of Vladislav, the weight of which gradually decreased and reached 0.48 g to 1613. Minted gold penny and the same stamps, also known as gilt counterfeits. Meanwhile in Yaroslavl gathered the people's militia led by Minin and Pozharsky, in order to supply the army there was opened a mint. Penny militia difficult to define, as was minted with stamps of the previous rulers, and has even been made new with the name of Mikhail Fedorovich. Silver was not enough, and the weight had to be reduced to 0.4, In memory of penny of the Troubled times that influenced the successful outcome of the liberation of Russia, in Yaroslavl, a monument was unveiled.
Recovery monetary system when Mikhail Fedorovich
In 1613 in Kostroma Zemsky Sobor appointed a new ruler of Russia, Mikhail Fedorovich, this marked the beginning of a new dynasty of the Romanovs. In the same year was closed Yaroslavl mint, but in 1618 he briefly resumed operations and minted follow Moscow cents (the image is fuzzy).
At first, the weight of the coins was significantly different and continued the tradition of that time the people's militia. Resumed coinage and cushions. From 1626 introduces a new standard of 425 cents per hryvnia (0.48 g), and shortly before it closes all mints, except Moscow.
As you can see, in the Russian state for a long time existed three types of coins: penny, Denga and Polushka. All settlements, even the largest result in these small shapeless flakes. But it is worth noting that a penny in those days – quite a valuable coin that you could spend a few days. Silver then valued much higher than it is now. Counting money and rubles, the ruble was equal to 100 kopecks or 200 money, despite the fact that the weight of the hryvnia were already doing much more coins. Was still Altyn – 6 money, or 3 pennies, that word entered the Russian language in the period of Mongol domination ("Alti" means "six"). No Altynov or not minted. The attempt to introduce into circulation the major denominations was carried out by Alexis.
Reform Of Aleksei Mikhailovich
During the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, son of the founder of the Romanov dynasty, was remembered by significant state transformations. Was annexed Ukraine and Belarus, significantly strengthened internal power, increased population, and the title of king was changed to "Autocrat of All Great, Little and White Russia". For all conversions needed money, while silver lacked. The head of the Embassy of the order of A. L. Ordin-Nashchokin offered to borrow the idea with copper pools abolished by Ivan the terrible, but to give them the value of these cents. Size and weight were approximately similar with silver.
Was re-opened in Novgorod and Pskov yards and created Kalinouski (near modern Riga). All of them had massively minted nearly worthless Treasury copper penny. It was thought that to give value would be enough to put the name and title of king. Silver pennies were produced in very small batches.
Copper penny Alexei Mikhailovich
(Museum of the Moscow Kremlin)
The population was reluctant to accept copper, preferably silver. Copper penny worthless, appeared changing the exchange rate (maximum reached 170:6). This led to an increase of issue, to cover government expenditure. Taxes were going silver, and copper were given salaries. To reinforce confidence in new coins, it was decided to put into circulation silver coin, and a penny to make a bargaining chip. For a basis took the European silver thalers (in Russia they were called efimkami), weighing 28-30 g and naccarelli them a horseman with a spear, and the date "1655" in the European calendar. In weight they were equal to only 64 cents, so the population met these rubles with a grain of salt. Them called "efimok with the symptom". Existed trial rubles 1654 with their own pattern, which was also done by the method of overstriking thalers.
Also known rare instances trial poltina, made of copper, by weight, of thalers. To release them did not. Produced and polupoltinnik method of dividing the Thaler into 4 parts, each sector has nakakakilala own stamp with rider on one side and the title of king on the other. In a limited number produced copper money of the normative weight of 0.24 g.
The rouble and poltina 1654
(from the exposition of the Hermitage)
The growing distrust of the copper coin and Efimkin overpriced, and increase taxes led to the Copper revolt of 1662, when he rebelled against the king of the lower strata of society. The causes of inflation are called, and numerous instances of counterfeiting (metal cost is small, and the value was high). A year after the rebellion had completely stopped minting copper coins and minimized reform. Rubles and polupoltinnik also disappeared from circulation.
Joining the South-Western lands influenced the gold embossing. For the distinguished Cossacks and local commanders, in addition to gold Ugric, coins cut in ¼ Ugric. They had a form of coin-scales, but large in size, with the image of the eagle.
The Reform Of Peter I
The joint reign of Peter and Ivan, under the Regency of their sister Sophia left to numismatists interesting patents of coins, which on one side depicts two young brothers and the double-headed eagle on the back of the Sophia with the Imperial regalia in hand. Produced Ugric and Ugric ½ (3.4 g and 1.7 g, respectively), in addition, another Ugric with double-headed eagle. Regular chasing of any significant changes was not. Minted pennies and money with the name of Ivan or Peter, the weight of the coins Fedor Alekseevich (penny – 0.42 g).
Cleaned coin of Sophia Alekseevny
(from the exposition of the Museum)
After Ivan's death in 1696 became available only a penny with a reduced weight – 0.28 g. And some specimens were generally 0.2 grams. On such a tiny coin the size of a flattened grain of rice labels longer fit, and instead of the full title of king is often possible to see individual letters, such as "THIS PET BCEAO". This decrease in weight allowed us to equate the ruble to the European Thaler, which was weighed 28 g. the coins was set the date according to the Gregorian calendar, but Slavic letters.
Having made a long visit to Europe, Peter the great conceived the tremendous changes in Russia, one of them is a drastic improvement of the monetary system. In order not to repeat the mistakes of the father, the reform was carried out in several stages and was prolonged for 20 years. The main goal was the introduction of copper coins to cover the deficit of silver. Additionally introduced in free circulation of gold as a basis of monetary circulation of the ruble was equal to a Thaler.
The stages of reforms were planned very well, so the population calmly accepted the transformation. Since the basis was the silver kopeck, Denga and Polushka were replaced from the market, the first in 1700 were issued copper coins of these denominations, as well as poltawski – the smallest coin in the history of Russia. The coins were large enough, had a round shape, in contrast to inconspicuous scales.
In 1701 popping silver coins unprecedented denominations: a dime (10 cents), poltina (50 kopecks) and polupoltinnik, and gold 1 and 2 Ducat. The piece had a weight of Ducat Hungarian (Ugric) and not tied to the Russian coins, had a floating rate. Subsequent rulers, the issue of gold coins will be kept until the end of the XVIII century. 1718 appear gold 2 rubles, which weighed a little more recently.
In 1704, already accustomed to coins of a new type of population received a silver ruble and the Altyn (3 kopecks). At the same time, in addition to the silver flakes were made of copper penny round shape weight 8 grams. So, everyone could choose between tiny, shapeless silver coins and these coins, but made of copper.
In 1713 the first time in history minted the coin. At first it was silver by weight matched to 5 cents. And 10 years later he produced the first copper coin, but he already weighs just 20 grams (that is, as 2.5 pennies of the first type).
Chasing wire of the cents continued until 1718, the year was canceled, and copper penny. Why? To quietly start chasing reduced to 2 times the stop – 400 grams per ruble. 340-year era scales left behind money received coins of different denominations with the decimal number system (by the way, for the first time in the world). Copper has become firmly established into circulation and became the basis of the money supply.
Photos provided by site users: Admin, сергей1959
Other articles on the history of coins:
Monetary circulation of Ancient Russia
Coins of the Russian principalities
Coins of the Russian state XVI-XVII centuries.
Coins of the Russian Empire
Coins of the USSR
Coins Bank Of Russia