Brief description of the most important stages of the history of means of payment of Russia from ancient times to the present day. The path of transition the monetary system of the state of paper-money circulation, where the coin loses its value and becomes a kind of the banknote.
Russian monetary circulation of pre-Mongol period is represented mainly foreign coins, and the various money substitutes. But under Vladimir the Great and Sviatopolk and Yaroslav the Wise had their own silver and gold coinage by type of the Byzantine solidus, it had a very minor scale. From the XI-XIII centuries on the territory of Russia begins the era of silver bullion, and coin completely disappears.
In XIII-XV centuries Russia was divided into many warring principalities. Every ruler tried to start production of its own coins with their inscriptions and drawings. The only thing that United them all - the technology of production. Coins were made of shapeless pieces of wire, had a very small size and are called "scales".
During the reign of Ivan the terrible is set uniform for the whole Rus ' coinage, including the penny, the Deng and the mite. Chasing is completely controlled by the government and is made from silver state Treasury. The quality of the coin compared to the period of fragmentation has not changed.
From 1700 to 1718, the year Peter the great carried out a monetary reform, the results of which were: the introduction of the decimal system of the account of mass stamping of the copper and gold coins. As the basis was chosen as a silver ruble, in weight similar to the European Taler. In the Imperial period the coinage reached its highest peak, some instances can be considered works of art.
By 1924, the Soviet government cannot stop inflation and create a strong ruble. Initially minted silver and copper coins, the size and weight comparable to a Royal, but then they gave way to coins made of cheap metals. Since 1965 mass produced commemorative coins.
In 1992, issued the first coins with the emblem of the Central Bank, which replaced the Soviet coins of the USSR state Bank. In 1998 entered into circulation as the new coins, which with slight modifications produced to this day. Annually minted several types of commemorative coins of precious metals and collectible coins made of gold and silver. Additionally, banks realized investment coins.
The history of paper money in Russia begins with the Manifesto of Catherine II in 1768 on the establishment of the assignat Bank. In the future, the paper ruble was devalued repeatedly, sometimes even existed separate from the monetary system. Competent measures allowed to stop inflation and to restore confidence in the notes, but public spending demanded the continuation of the release. The principles laid down 250 years ago continue to be used currently.
With the advent of Soviet power, began uncontrolled emission of money, which led to a complete devaluation of the ruble. In parallel with the national, there was a huge number of local and private money. The situation was brought under control in 1924, largely contributed to the introduction of pennies. In 1947 and 1961 a monetary reform to replace the money and the conversion price. In the first half of 90-ies of the ruble again began to depreciate, and in 1998 introduced the money of modern design.